
8Grade 8 Standards
Top Mathematicians

Patterns and Relations

8.PR.1
Graph and analyze twovariable linear relations.
• Determine the missing value in an ordered pair for an equation of a linear relation.
• Create a table of values for the equation of a linear relation.
• Construct a graph from the equation of a linear relation (limited to discrete data).
• Describe the relationship between the variables of a graph. 

8.335

8.3410

8.3610

8.4910

8.5010

8.5110

8.525


8.PR.2
Model and solve problems using linear equations of the form:
• ax = b
• x/a = b, a ≠ 0
• ax + b = c
• x/a + b = c, a ≠ 0
• a(x + b) = c
concretely, pictorially, and symbolically, where a, b, and c, are integers.
• Model a problem with a linear equation, and solve the equation using concrete models.
• Verify the solution to a linear equation using a variety of methods, including concrete materials, diagrams, and substitution.
• Draw a visual representation of the steps used to solve a linear equation, and record each step symbolically.
• Solve a linear equation symbolically.
• Identify and correct errors in an incorrect solution of a linear equation.
• Solve a linear equation by applying the distributive property [e.g., 2(x + 3) = 5; 2x + 6 = 5; ...].
• Solve a problem using a linear equation, and record the process.

8.PR.1

Shape and Space

8.SS.1
Develop and apply the Pythagorean theorem to solve problems.
• Model and explain the Pythagorean theorem concretely, pictorially, or by using technology.
• Explain, using examples, that the Pythagorean theorem applies only to right triangles.
• Determine whether or not a triangle is a right triangle by applying the Pythagorean theorem.
• Solve a problem that involves determining the measure of the third side of a right triangle, given the measures of the other two sides.
• Solve a problem that involves Pythagorean triples (e.g., 3, 4, 5 or 5, 12, 13). 
8.SS.2
Draw and construct nets for 3D objects.
• Match a net to the 3D object it represents.
• Construct a 3D object from a net.
• Draw nets for a right circular cylinder, right rectangular prism, and right triangular prism, and verify by constructing the 3D objects from the nets.
• Predict 3D objects that can be created from a net and verify the prediction. 
8.SS.3
Determine the surface area of
• right rectangular prisms
• right triangular prisms
• right cylinders
to solve problems.
• Explain, using examples, the relationship between the area of 2D shapes and the surface area of a 3D object.
• Identify all the faces of a prism, including right rectangular and right triangular prisms.
• Describe and apply strategies for determining the surface area of a right rectangular or right triangular prism.
• Describe and apply strategies for determining the surface area of a right cylinder.
• Solve a problem involving surface area. 

8.655


8.SS.4
Develop and apply formulas for determining the volume of right prisms and right cylinders.
• Determine the volume of a right prism, given the area of the base.
• Generalize and apply a rule for determining the volume of right cylinders.
• Explain the relationship between the area of the base of a right 3D object and the formula for the volume of the object.
• Demonstrate that the orientation of a 3D object does not affect its volume.
• Apply a formula to solve a problem involving the volume of a right cylinder or a right prism. 
8.SS.5
Draw and interpret top, front, and side views of 3D objects composed of right rectangular prisms.
• Draw and label the top, front, and side views for a 3D object on isometric dot paper.
• Compare different views of a 3D object to the object.
• Predict the top, front, and side views that will result from a described rotation (limited to multiples of 90°) and verify predictions.
• Draw and label the top, front, and side views that result from a rotation (limited to multiples of 90°).
• Build a 3D block object, given the top, front, and side views, with or without the use of technology.
• Sketch and label the top, front, and side views of a 3D object in the environment, with or without the use of technology. 

8.645

8.675


8.SS.6
Demonstrate an understanding of tessellation by
• explaining the properties of shapes that make tessellating possible
• creating tessellations
• identifying tessellations in the environment
• Identify in a set of regular polygons those shapes and combinations of shapes that will tessellate, and use angle measurements to justify choices.
• Identify in a set of irregular polygons those shapes and combinations of shapes that will tessellate, and use angle measurements to justify choices.
• Identify a translation, reflection, or rotation in a tessellation.
• Identify a combination of transformations in a tessellation.
• Create a tessellation using one or more 2D shapes, and describe the tessellation in terms of transformations and conservation of area.
• Create a new tessellating shape (polygon or nonpolygon) by transforming a portion of a tessellating polygon, and describe the resulting tessellation in terms of transformations and conservation of area.
• Identify and describe tessellations in the environment. 

8.SS.1

Number

8.N.1
Demonstrate an understanding of perfect squares and square roots, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically (limited to whole numbers).
• Represent a perfect square as a square region using materials, such as grid paper or square shapes.
• Determine the factors of a perfect square, and explain why one of the factors is the square root and the others are not.
• Determine whether or not a number is a perfect square using materials and strategies such as square shapes, grid paper, or prime factorization, and explain the reasoning.
• Determine the square root of a perfect square, and record it symbolically.
• Determine the square of a number 
8.N.2
Determine the approximate square root of numbers that are not perfect squares (limited to whole numbers).
• Estimate the square root of a number that is not a perfect square using the roots of perfect squares as benchmarks.
• Approximate the square root of a number that is not a perfect square using technology (e.g., calculator, computer).
• Explain why the square root of a number shown on a calculator may be an approximation.
• Identify a number with a square root that is between two given numbers. 
8.N.3
Demonstrate an understanding of percents greater than or equal to 0%.
• Provide a context where a percent may be more than 100% or between 0% and 1%.
• Represent a fractional percent using grid paper.
• Represent a percent greater than 100% using grid paper.
• Determine the percent represented by a shaded region on a grid, and record it in decimal, fractional, or percent form.
• Express a percent in decimal or fractional form.
• Express a decimal in percent or fractional form.
• Express a fraction in decimal or percent form.
• Solve a problem involving percents.
• Solve a problem involving combined percents (e.g., addition of percents, such as GST + PST).
• Solve a problem that involves finding the percent of a percent (e.g., A population increased by 10% one year and then increased by 15% the next year. Explain why there was not a 25% increase in population over the two years). 

8.515

8.615

8.75

8.815

8.915

8.105

8.115

8.1215

8.1315


8.N.4
Demonstrate an understanding of ratio and rate.
• Express a twoterm ratio from a context in the forms 3:5 or 3 to 5.
• Express a threeterm ratio from a context in the forms 4:7:3 or 4 to 7 to 3.
• Express a parttopart ratio as a part to whole ratio (e.g., Given the ratio of frozen juice to water is 1 can to 4 cans, this can be written as 1/4 or 1:4 or 1 to 4, [parttopart ratio]. Related parttowhole ratios are 1/5 or 1:5 or 1 to 5, which is the ratio of juice to solution, or 4/5, or 4:5 or 4 to 5, which is the ratio of water to solution).
• Identify and describe ratios and rates from reallife examples, and record them symbolically.
• Express a rate using words or symbols (e.g., 20 L per 100 km or 20 L/100 km).
• Express a ratio as a percent, and explain why a rate cannot be represented as a percent. 

8.145

8.1515

8.165

8.1715

8.185

8.1910

8.205

8.215


8.N.5
Solve problems that involve rates, ratios, and proportional reasoning.
• Explain the meaning of a/b within a context.
• Provide a context in which a/b represents a
 fraction
 rate
 ratio
 quotient
 probability
• Solve a problem involving rate, ratio, or percent. 

8.815

8.1515

8.165

8.185

8.2215

8.2315

8.2415

8.2515

8.2615

8.2715

8.2815

8.2915

8.3015

8.3115

8.325

8.335

8.3410

8.3510

8.3610

8.3715


8.N.6
Demonstrate an understanding of multiplying and dividing positive fractions and mixed numbers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.
• Identify the operation(s) required to solve a problem involving positive fractions.
• Provide a context involving the multiplying of two positive fractions.
• Provide a context involving the dividing of two positive fractions.
• Express a positive mixed number as an improper fraction and a positive improper fraction as a mixed number.
• Model multiplication of a positive fraction by a whole number, concretely or pictorially, and record the process.
• Model multiplication of a positive fraction by a positive fraction, concretely or pictorially, and record the process.
• Model division of a positive fraction by a whole number, concretely or pictorially, and record the process.
• Generalize and apply rules for multiplying and dividing positive fractions, including mixed numbers.
• Solve a problem involving positive fractions, taking into consideration order of operations(limited to problems with positive solutions). 

8.3815

8.3915

8.4015

8.4115

8.4215

8.4315


8.N.7
Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of integers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.
• Identify the operation(s) required to solve a problem involving integers.
• Provide a context that requires multiplying two integers.
• Provide a context that requires dividing two integers.
• Model the process of multiplying two integers using concrete materials or pictorial representations, and record the process.
• Model the process of dividing an integer by an integer using concrete materials or pictorial representations, and record the process.
• Generalize and apply a rule for determining the sign of the product or quotient of integers.
• Solve a problem involving integers, taking into consideration order of operations. 

8.4415

8.4515

8.465

8.4720

8.4820


8.N.8
Solve problems involving positive rational numbers.
• Identify the operation(s) required to solve a problem involving positive rational numbers.
• Determine the reasonableness of an answer to a problem involving positive rational numbers.
• Estimate the solution and solve a problem involving positive rational numbers.
• Identify and correct errors in the solution to a problem involving positive rational numbers. 

8.N.1

Statistics & Probability

8.SP.1
Critique ways in which data are presented.
• Compare the information that is provided for the same data set by a set of graphs, such as circle graphs, line graphs, bar graphs, double bar graphs, or pictographs, to determine the strengths and limitations of each graph.
• Identify the advantages and disadvantages of different graphs, such as circle graphs, line graphs, bar graphs, double bar graphs, or pictographs, in representing a specific set of data.
• Justify the choice of a graphical representation for a situation and its corresponding data set.
• Explain how a formatting choice, such as the size of the intervals, the width of bars, or the visual representation, may lead to misinterpretation of the data.
• Identify conclusions that are inconsistent with a data set or graph, and explain the misinterpretation. 

8.685


8.SP.2
Solve problems involving the probability of independent events.
• Determine the probability of two independent events and verify the probability using a different strategy.
• Generalize and apply a rule for determining the probability of independent events.
• Solve a problem that involves determining the probability of independent events. 

8.695

8.705

8.7115

8.725

8.735

8.745


8.SP.1