
6Grade 6 Standards
Top Mathematicians

Number

6.N.1
Demonstrate an understanding of place value for numbers
• greater than one million
• less than onethousandth
• Explain how the pattern of the place value system (e.g., the repetition of ones, tens, and hundreds) makes it possible to read and write numerals for numbers of any magnitude.
• Provide examples of where large numbers and small decimals are used (e.g., media, science, medicine, technology). 
6.N.2
Solve problems involving large numbers, using technology.
• Identify which operation is necessary to solve a problem and solve it.
• Determine the reasonableness of an answer.
• Estimate the answer and solve a problem.
• Identify and correct errors in a solution to a problem that involves large numbers. 
6.N.3
Demonstrate an understanding of factors and multiples by
• determining multiples and factors of numbers less than 100
• identifying prime and composite numbers
• solving problems involving factors or multiples
• Identify multiples for a number and explain the strategy used to identify them.
• Determine all the wholenumber factors of a number using arrays.
• Identify the factors for a number and explain the strategy used (e.g., concrete or visual representations, repeated division by prime numbers or factor trees).
• Identify common factors and common multiples for 2 or 3 numbers.
• Provide an example of a prime number and explain why it is a prime number.
• Provide an example of a composite number and explain why it is a composite number.
• Sort a set of numbers as prime and composite.
• Solve a problem involving factors, multiples, the largest common factor or the lowest common multiple.
• Explain why 0 and 1 are neither prime nor composite. 

6.520

6.610

6.715

6.820

6.920


6.N.4
Relate improper fractions to mixed numbers.
• Demonstrate using models that an improper fraction represents a number greater than 1.
• Express improper fractions as mixed numbers.
• Express mixed numbers as improper fractions.
• Place a set of fractions, including mixed numbers and improper fractions, on a horizontal or vertical number line, and explain strategies used to determine position. 
6.N.5
Demonstrate an understanding of ratio, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.
• Provide a concrete or pictorial representation for a ratio.
• Write a ratio from a concrete or pictorial representation.
• Express a ratio in multiple forms, such as 3:5, 3/5 , or 3 to 5.
• Identify and describe ratios from reallife contexts and record them symbolically.
• Explain the part/whole and part/part ratios of a set (e.g., for a group of 3 girls and 5 boys, explain the ratios 3:5, 3:8, and 5:8).
• Solve a problem involving ratio. 

6.115

6.125

6.135

6.145

6.155


6.N.6
Demonstrate an understanding of percent (limited to whole numbers), concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.
• Explain that “percent” means “out of 100.”
• Explain that percent is the ratio of a certain number of units to 100 units.
• Use concrete materials and pictorial representations to illustrate a percent.
• Record the percent displayed in a concrete or pictorial representation.
• Express a percent as a fraction and a decimal.
• Identify and describe percents from reallife contexts and record them symbolically.
• Solve a problem involving percents 

6.1610

6.1715

6.1815

6.195

6.205

6.215

6.2215

6.2315

6.2420

6.255

6.2615


6.N.7
Demonstrate an understanding of integers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.
• Extend a horizontal or vertical number line by adding numbers less than zero and explain the pattern on each side of zero.
• Place a set of integers on a horizontal or vertical number line and explain how integers are ordered.
• Describe contexts in which integers are used (e.g., on a thermometer).
• Compare two integers, represent their relationship using the symbols <, >, and =, and verify using a horizontal or vertical number line.
• Order a set of integers in ascending or descending order. 

6.275

6.285

6.3015


6.N.8
Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of decimals (involving 1digit wholenumber multipliers, 1digit natural number divisors, and multipliers and divisors that are multiples of 10), concretely, pictorially, and symbolically, by
• using personal strategies
• using the standard algorithms
• using estimation
• solving problems
• Estimate a product using frontend estimation (e.g., for 15.205 m x 4, think 15 m x 4, so the product is greater than 60 m), and place the decimal in the appropriate place.
• Estimate a quotient using frontend estimation (e.g., for $26.83 ÷ 4, think 24 ÷ 4, so the quotient is greater than $6), and place the decimal in the appropriate place.
• Predict products and quotients of decimals using estimation strategies.
• Identify and correct errors of decimal point placement in a product or quotient by estimating.
• Solve a problem that involves multiplication and division of decimals using multipliers from 0 to 9 and divisors from 1 to 9.
• Use mental math to determine products or quotients involving decimals when the multiplier or divisor is a multiple of 10 (e.g., 2.47 × 10 = 24.7; 31.9 ÷ 100 = 0.319).
• Model and explain the relationship that exists between an algorithm, place value, and number properties.
• Determine products and quotients using the standard algorithms of vertical multiplication (numbers arranged vertically and multiplied using single digits which are added to form a final product) and long division (the multiples of the divisor are subtracted from the dividend).
• Solve multiplication and division problems in context using personal strategies, and record the process.
• Refine personal strategies, such as mental math, to increase their efficiency when appropriate (e.g., 4.46 ÷ 2 think 446 ÷ 2 = 223, and then use frontend estimation to determine the placement of the decimal 2.23). 
6.N.9
Explain and apply the order of operations, excluding exponents (limited to whole numbers).
• Demonstrate and explain with examples why there is a need to have a standardized order of operations.
• Apply the order of operations to solve multistep problems with or without technology. 

6.3515


6.N.1

Patterns and Relations

6.PR.1
Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships within tables of values to solve problems.
• Generate values in one column of a table of values, values in the other column, and a pattern rule.
• State, using mathematical language, the relationship in a table of values.
• Create a concrete or pictorial representation of the relationship shown in a table of values.
• Predict the value of an unknown term using the relationship in a table of values and verify the prediction.
• Formulate a rule to describe the relationship between two columns of numbers in a table of values.
• Identify missing elements in a table of values.
• Identify and correct errors in a table of values.
• Describe the pattern within each column of a table of values.
• Create a table of values to record and reveal a pattern to solve a problem. 

6.155

6.3615

6.3710


6.PR.2
Represent and describe patterns and relationships using graphs and tables.
• Translate a pattern to a table of values and graph the table of values (limit to linear graphs with discrete elements).
• Create a table of values from a pattern or a graph.
• Describe, using everyday language, orally or in writing, the relationship shown on a graph. 

6.3615

6.3710

6.3815


6.PR.3
Represent generalizations arising from number relationships using equations with letter variables.
• Write and explain the formula for finding the perimeter of any rectangle.
• Write and explain the formula for finding the area of any rectangle.
• Develop and justify equations using letter variables that illustrate the commutative property of addition and multiplication (e.g., a + b = b + a or a × b = b × a).
• Describe the relationship in a table using a mathematical expression.
• Represent a pattern rule using a simple mathematical expression, such as 4d or 2n + 1. 

6.3915

6.405

6.415

6.4210


6.PR.4
Demonstrate and explain the meaning of preservation of equality, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically.
• Model the preservation of equality for addition using concrete materials, such as a balance or using pictorial representations, and orally explain the process.
• Model the preservation of equality for subtraction using concrete materials, such as a balance or using pictorial representations, and orally explain the process.
• Model the preservation of equality for multiplication using concrete materials, such as a balance or using pictorial representations, and orally explain the process.
• Model the preservation of equality for division using concrete materials, such as a balance or using pictorial representations, and orally explain the process.
• Write equivalent forms of an equation by applying the preservation of equality, and verify using concrete materials [e.g., 3b = 12 is the same as 3b + 5 = 12 + 5 or 2r = 7 is the same as 3(2r) = 3(7)].

6.PR.1

Shape and Space

6.SS.1
Demonstrate an understanding of angles by
• identifying examples of angles in the environment
• classifying angles according to their measure
• estimating the measure of angles using 45°, 90°, and 180° as reference angles
• determining angle measures in degrees
• drawing and labelling angles when the measure is specified
• Provide examples of angles found in the environment.
• Classify a set of angles according to their measure (e.g., acute, right, obtuse, straight, reflex).
• Sketch 45°, 90°, and 180° angles without the use of a protractor, and describe the relationship among them.
• Estimate the measure of an angle using 45°, 90°, and 180° as reference angles.
• Measure, using a protractor, angles in various orientations.
• Draw and label an angle in various orientations using a protractor.
• Describe the measure of an angle as the measure of rotation of one of its sides.
• Describe the measure of angles as the measure of an interior angle of a polygon. 
6.SS.2
Demonstrate that the sum of interior angles is
• 180° in a triangle
• 360° in a quadrilateral
• Explain, using models, that the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is the same for all triangles.
• Explain, using models, that the sum of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is the same for all quadrilaterals. 
6.SS.3
Develop and apply a formula for determining the
• perimeter of polygons
• area of rectangles
• volume of right rectangular prisms
• Explain, using models, how the perimeter of any polygon can be determined.
• Generalize a rule for determining the perimeter of polygons.
• Explain, using models, how the area of any rectangle can be determined.
• Generalize a rule for determining the area of rectangles.
• Explain, using models, how the volume of any right rectangular prism can be determined.
• Generalize a rule for determining the volume of right rectangular prisms.
• Solve a problem involving the perimeter of polygons, the area of rectangles, or the volume of right rectangular prisms. 

6.5015

6.515

6.5215

6.5315

6.5415

6.555


6.SS.4
Construct and compare triangles, including
• scalene
• isosceles
• equilateral
• right
• obtuse
• acute
in different orientations.
• Sort a set of triangles according to the length of the sides.
• Sort a set of triangles according to the measures of the interior angles.
• Identify the characteristics of a set of triangles according to their sides or their interior angles.
• Sort a set of triangles and explain the sorting rule.
• Draw a triangle (e.g., scalene).
• Replicate a triangle in a different orientation and show that the two are congruent. 

6.565


6.SS.5
Describe and compare the sides and angles of regular and irregular polygons.
• Sort a set of 2D shapes into polygons and nonpolygons, and explain the sorting rule.
• Demonstrate congruence (sides to sides and angles to angles) in a regular polygon by superimposing.
• Demonstrate congruence (sides to sides and angles to angles) in a regular polygon by measuring.
• Demonstrate that the sides of a regular polygon are of the same length and that the angles of a regular polygon are of the same measure.
• Sort a set of polygons as regular or irregular and justify the sorting.
• Identify and describe regular and irregular polygons in the environment. 
6.SS.6
Perform a combination of transformations (translations, rotations, or reflections) on a single 2D shape, and draw and describe the image.
• Demonstrate that a 2D shape and its transformation image are congruent.
• Model a set of successive translations, successive rotations, or successive reflections of a 2D shape.
• Model a combination of two different types of transformations of a 2D shape.
• Draw and describe a 2D shape and its image, given a combination of transformations.
• Describe the transformations performed on a 2D shape to produce a given image.
• Model a set of successive transformations (translation, rotation, or reflection) of a 2D shape.
• Perform and record one or more transformations of a 2D shape that will result in a given image. 
6.SS.7
Perform a combination of successive transformations of 2D shapes to create a design, and identify and describe the transformations.
• Analyze a design created by transforming one or more 2D shapes, and identify the original shape and the transformations used to create the design.
• Create a design using one or more 2D shapes and describe the transformations used. 

6.SS.8
Identify and plot points in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane using wholenumber ordered pairs.
• Label the axes of the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane and identify the origin.
• Plot a point in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane given its ordered pair.
• Match points in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane with their corresponding ordered pair.
• Plot points in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane with intervals of 1, 2, 5, or 10 on its axes, given wholenumber ordered pairs.
• Draw shapes or designs, given ordered pairs in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane.
• Determine the distance between points along horizontal and vertical lines in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane.
• Draw shapes or designs in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane and identify the points used to produce them. 
6.SS.9
Perform and describe single transformations of a 2D shape in the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane (limited to wholenumber vertices).
• Identify the coordinates of the vertices of a 2D shape (limited to the first quadrant of a Cartesian plane).
• Perform a transformation on a given 2D shape and identify the coordinates of the vertices of the image (limited to the first quadrant).
• Describe the positional change of the vertices of a 2D shape to the corresponding vertices of its image as a result of a transformation (limited to first quadrant).

6.SS.1

Statistics & Probability

6.SP.1
Create, label, and interpret line graphs to draw conclusions.
• Determine the common attributes (title, axes, and intervals) of line graphs by comparing a set of line graphs.
• Determine whether a set of data can be represented by a line graph (continuous data) or a series of points (discrete data), and explain why.
• Create a line graph from a table of values or set of data.
• Interpret a line graph to draw conclusions. 

6.655

6.665

6.675

6.685

6.695


6.SP.2
Select, justify, and use appropriate methods of collecting data, including
• questionnaires
• experiments
• databases
• electronic media
• Select a method for collecting data to answer a question, and justify the choice.
• Design and administer a questionnaire for collecting data to answer a question and record the results.
• Answer a question by performing an experiment, recording the results, and drawing a conclusion.
• Explain when it is appropriate to use a database as a source of data.
• Gather data for a question by using electronic media, including selecting data from databases. 

6.SP.3
Graph collected data and analyze the graph to solve problems.
• Select a type of graph for displaying a set of collected data, and justify the choice of graph.
• Solve a problem by graphing data and interpreting the resulting graph. 

6.655

6.665

6.675

6.685

6.695

6.7020

6.715

6.725

6.735

6.745

6.755

6.765

6.775

6.785

6.795

6.805

6.815

6.825

6.835

6.845


6.SP.4
Demonstrate an understanding of probability by
• identifying all possible outcomes of a probability experiment
• differentiating between experimental and theoretical probability
• determining the theoretical probability of outcomes in a probability experiment
• determining the experimental probability of outcomes in a probability experiment
• comparing experimental results with the theoretical probability for an experiment
• List the possible outcomes of a probability experiment, such as
 tossing a coin
 rolling a die with any number of sides
 spinning a spinner with any number of sectors
• Determine the theoretical probability of an outcome occurring for a probability experiment.
• Predict the probability of an outcome occurring for a probability experiment by using theoretical probability.
• Conduct a probability experiment, with or without technology, and compare the experimental results to the theoretical probability.
• Explain that as the number of trials in a probability experiment increases, the experimental probability approaches theoretical probability of a particular outcome.
• Distinguish between theoretical probability and experimental probability, and explain the differences.

6.SP.1